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Dyslexia


 

























Note:

On this page and throughout this website you will come across a lot of information about dyslexia. This is because HEPAC/NVEPAC is committed to providing reasearch- based information.  This website is opinion free and HEPAC/NVEAPC is committed to debunking harmful myths about learning differences.   

More than 30 years of scientific research funded by the National Insitites of Health and leading research universities proves that dyslexia is common and affects 1 in 5 people; that it is far and away the most common learning disability and accounts for 80-90 percent of all learning disabilities; dyslexia is under-identified; it is highly heritable-runs in families; it is not tied to intelligence; it often co-exixts with ADD/ADHD; it is more than a reading problem- it often also impacts speaking, reading, writing, math and memory; it can often be identifed as early as 5-1/2 years old although some do not fully present until 3rd Grade or even middle school or high school when more complex reading and writing is required; certain aspects of dyslexia (decoding deficits) can often be remediated with evidence based instruction if identified early- meaning most can be taught to decode words relatively accurately and spelling can also be improved. But fluency deficits associated with dyslexia often persist throughout life and often present in the inability to speak, read, write or recall rote information quickly-accurately-fluently- giving rise to the on-going need for accommodations such as extended time, assistive technology and useof a calculator.  Dyslexic individuals who are identified late or not at all and not provided evidence based instruction or accommodations are at high risk for depression, anxiety, low self esteem and educational and professional under achievement. 

When a child struggles in school - teachers and parents should first and foremost consider the possibility that the child is dyslexic.  Dyslexia is not the only reason why a child may struggle in school. But dyslexia is the most likely reason a child is struggling in school. Most who are identified early and provided evidence-based instruction and accommodations can succeed both academically and professionally. 


Great Websites
http://dyslexia.yale.edu/ (Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity)
www.brightsolutions.us (Bright Solutions for Dyslexia)
http://eida.org/fact-sheets/ (International Dyslexia Assn.)
https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-disabilities/dyslexia/understanding-
dyslexia#item1dyslexiatraininginstitute.org/blog/all-about-dyslexia/  (Understood.Org)
 
Statement by American Academy of Pediatrics; 80% of individuals with a learning disability are dyslexic
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/2/837 (American Academy of Pediatrics: Dyslexia, LD, Vision)
 
Debunking the Myths and Other Important Facts about Dyslexia
http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/dyslexics/learn-about-dyslexia/what-is-dyslexia/debunking-common-myths-about-dyslexia
(Common Myths: Univesity of Michigan Dyslexia Help)
 
https://eida.org/allegiance-to-the-facts-best-approach-for-students-with-dyslexia/ 
(Fact: Not All Kids with Reading Difficulties have a weakness or low score on tests of phonological processing or phonological awareness)
 
http://www.futurity.org/dyslexia-reading-diagnosis-1042602/
(Fact: Waiting Until A Child is in the 3rd Grade or Later before Identifying Dyslexia is No Longer Acceptable)
 

Important Fact #1: Not All Dyslexic Kids have Below Average Reading Scores: An Average Reader can be Dyslexic
 Summary of a statement by Dr. Sally Shaywitz of the Yale Center for Dyslexia
The foundation and basis of dyslexia resides in a comparison between a person’s reading (accuracy or fluency) and his intelligence, level of education, or professional status.  Dyslexia at its core and in its definition is a disparity within the person, not comparing one person to another.  For example, for a second-year medical student with an IQ of 140 and reading at 100, that is a huge disparity—one not characterizing fellow medical students who may have a similar IQ of 140 and also reading at about that level.  This individual has the cognitive ability to master complex and very difficult conceptual material within a college, graduate or professional school curriculum despite having impaired reading fluency due to a neurobiological disruption in the neural systems for rapid reading and suffers the result of extremely slow and effortful reading.  The average person with the same reading difficulties would not be able to master the curriculum of medical school.  Thus, interpreting the law to mean that, if you are reading at the level of an average person, then you are not disabled, is not appropriate for dyslexia.

Dyslexia is conceptualized as an encapsulated weakness resulting in slow reading surrounded by a sea of strengths.  It is the sea of strengths in thinking and reasoning that, together with the accommodation of extra time, allows a slow-reading but good-thinking dyslexic to succeed.  The accommodation of extra time on tests levels the playing the field, allowing the hardworking dyslexic to access his strengths and demonstrate his knowledge. (http://dyslexia.yale.edu/Policy_QA.html)

Important Fact #2: Some Students with Reading Difficulties Do Fine on Phonological Processing Tests
Statement by Dr. Louisa Moats (http://www.louisamoats.com/Education_&_Bio.php )
A third prominent idea that has been repeatedly challenged by evidence is the presumption that all students with reading difficulties will demonstrate a weakness or low score on a test of phonological processing or phonological awareness. While this is true for the group of poor readers as a whole, and while teaching phoneme awareness to groups of young children is of proven value for long-term outcomes, about 25 to 30% of students who have trouble learning to read do just fine on direct measures of phonological awareness. They look normal in that dimension of language processing—at least the way it is measured on tests commonly used. This has been documented by researchers at the Scottish Rite clinic in Texas; the reading laboratory at Tufts University; the Hammill Institute that publishes the diagnostic tests of Pro-Ed; and the European studies of Franck Ramus. Such findings will be explained by science eventually. Meanwhile, let’s not hang our diagnostic hats on tests of phonological processing, and instead, be ready to teach all students who are having trouble developing basic reading and writing skills.

Important Fact #3: There are Different Types of Dyslexia
Dyslexia shows itself in different ways.
There is Phonological Dyslexia, Surface Dyslexia, Rapid Naming Deficit.
A person can have single or double deficit dyslexia 

Important Fact #4: Rapid Naming is One of the Best Predictors of Reading Fluency 
 


The Many Possible Signs of Dyslexia
http://headstrongnation.org/potential-indicators-dyslexia (Potential Indicators)
http://dyslexia.yale.edu/clues1.html (Yale Center for Dyslexia)
http://www.dys-add.com/resources/RecentResearch/DysWarningSigns.pdf (PreK-Adulthood)
 
Dyslexic and Gifted/Twice Exceptional
http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10435.aspx (Article)
http://eida.org/gifted-and-dyslexic-identifying-and-instructing-the-twice-exceptional-student-fact-sheet/ (Int'l Dyslexia Assn)
 
Advocacy
https://dyslexiacaucus-brownley.house.gov/  (Congress Raises Awareness and Advocates for Dyslexia)
http://decodingdyslexianj.org/  (Grassroots Parents Movement starts in 2011: Now in all 50 States and Canada)
 
 
Congressional Hearing: The Science of Dyslexia, September 2014
 
         Testimony by Dr. S. Shaywitz, Yale Center for Dyslexia (6 min.)                  Testimony by Max Brooks, Author & Screenwriter (4 min)                                        
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                           4 Minute Video: Dyslexia Revealed                                                    Deborah Lynam: Founding Member Decoding Dys   
      
                          
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


















More Videos
https://go.learningally.org/webinar-susan-barton-myths-dyslexia/  (Myths About Dyslexia: 1 hour)
 
Books
Overcoming Dyslexia, Dr. Sally Shaywitz
The Dyslexia Empowerment Plan, Ben Foss
Dyslexic Advantage, Dr. Brock & Fernette Eide
 
Movies

The Big Picture: Rethinking Dyslexia (Watch the Movie Here! Movie is in 4 Parts)
 
                                        Part 1: 14 Minutes                                                                                          Part 2: 14 Minutes


 
What Could a Dyslexic Look Like in the Classroom
By the Yale Center for Dyslexia. 6 Min Video 
Part 3: 12 Minutes

Part 4:  14 Minutes